The Road Traffic (New Drivers) Act imposes a two year probationary period on new drivers from the day that they pass their first UK driving test.
Within this two year period, if you accrue 6 or more penalty points on your driving licence, the DVLA revoke your entitlement to drive.
If this happens, you will not be able to drive at all until you reapply for a provisional driving licence. Once you have this, normal learner driver rules apply. This means that you will need to be accompanied by an appropriate supervising driver and display L plates. In order to regain your full driving licence, you will need to pass both the theory and practical driving tests again.
If you already have penalty points on your provisional licence before you pass the practical test, these will count towards the total of 6 points that would lead to losing your licence. If you have 6 or more points prior to passing the test, you will be granted a full licence but ANY further points within your first two years would mean your licence would be immediately revoked.
See GOV.UK for more information on the New Drivers Act.